Laboratorio de Contaminación Atmosférica

  • strict warning: Declaration of author_facet::build_root_categories_query() should be compatible with faceted_search_facet::build_root_categories_query() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/faceted_search/author_facet.module on line 136.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_type_facet::build_root_categories_query() should be compatible with faceted_search_facet::build_root_categories_query() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/faceted_search/content_type_facet.module on line 243.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_authored_facet::build_root_categories_query() should be compatible with faceted_search_facet::build_root_categories_query() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/faceted_search/date_authored_facet.module on line 182.
  • strict warning: Declaration of taxonomy_facet::build_root_categories_query() should be compatible with faceted_search_facet::build_root_categories_query() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/faceted_search/taxonomy_facets.module on line 400.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1118.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_page::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 250.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 47.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 48.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 49.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 50.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 51.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 52.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 53.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 54.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 55.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_block::init() should be compatible with views_plugin_display::init(&$view, &$display, $options = NULL) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 83.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_block::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 83.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 50.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 51.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 52.
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  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 54.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 55.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 56.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 57.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 58.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_attachment::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 239.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 164.
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  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 167.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 1148.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 210.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_handler_field_multiple::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/date/date/date_handler_field_multiple.inc on line 171.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_api_argument_handler::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/date/includes/date_api_argument_handler.inc on line 366.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_api_argument_handler::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/date/includes/date_api_argument_handler.inc on line 366.
  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/date/includes/date_api_argument_handler.inc on line 33.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 599.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 599.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc on line 181.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_style::init() should be compatible with views_plugin_style::init(&$view, &$display, $options = NULL) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_style.inc on line 175.
  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 128.
  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 128.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 47.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 48.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 49.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 50.
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  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 52.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 53.
  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 54.
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  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 50.
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  • warning: Attempt to modify property of non-object in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 164.
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  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_view_plugin_style::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_view_plugin_style.inc on line 141.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1118.
  • strict warning: Declaration of image_attach_views_handler_field_attached_images::pre_render() should be compatible with views_handler_field::pre_render($values) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/image/contrib/image_attach/image_attach_views_handler_field_attached_images.inc on line 124.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 25.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 25.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /wwwdata4/webiam/www/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 136.

 La contaminación ambiental es un fenómeno potencialmente negativo que afecta a los seres vivos, incluido el ser humano. La explotación intensiva y extensiva de los recursos naturales, los cambios de uso de suelo, las grandes concentraciones urbanas e industriales, así como, el elevado consumo de combustibles fósiles, contaminan la atmósfera y el medio terrestre, dañando al ecosistema natural en un proceso que parece ser irreversible. En este contexto, la contaminación del suelo, del agua y del aire, influye de manera directa en la salud de las personas y en su calidad de vida.

 

El tipo de influencia o impacto que la contaminación ambiental puede producir -ya sea local, regional o global- depende del tiempo de permanencia del químico contaminante en el medio respectivo y de qué tan lejos puede viajar desde su origen. Sin embargo, se genera daño irreversible en extensas áreas geográficas; particularmente, al suelo, a los bosques, a la vegetación,  a los cuerpos de agua y a los animales.

 

Un caso particular, es sin duda “la contaminación atmosférica”; problema grave de deterioro ambiental que hemos padecido de manera significativa en los últimos 30 años,  y del que no se tiene el conocimiento adecuado y oportuno sobre cuáles son los mecanismos de prevención y de adaptación ante condiciones negativas extremas. En este orden, una variable importante es la velocidad del viento, pues las condiciones meteorológicas dominantes transportan los contaminantes sin respetar límites físicos locales, regionales, nacionales e internacionales.

 

En adición, las consecuencias no son, solo efectos a los seres vivos, sino que además, generan otras anomalías que afectan al ecosistema; tal es el caso de las lluvias ácidas. Son lluvias nocivas con alto contenido de contaminantes incorporados en los procesos de transporte, dispersión y depósito final. Las investigaciones en Europa y Norteamérica reportan que el bióxido de azufre (SO2) y óxidos de nitrógeno (NOX) son los contaminantes precursores en la acidificación de las lluvias, por interactuar con la radiación solar y la humedad atmosférica para forjar especies ácidas de sulfatos y nitratos; es decir, ácido sulfúrico y nítrico diluido. Su frecuencia en las grandes ciudades afecta a la salud humana, los lagos, ríos, suelos, plantas, árboles, materiales y estructuras artísticas.

 

Los graves problemas de deterioro que se padecen actualmente, adquieren mayor importancia debido a que el crecimiento proyectado para la población urbana del mundo, aumenta tanto las fuentes de contaminación como el número de personas expuestas a los contaminantes nocivos. Algunos estudios reportan que las fuentes móviles son el origen primario de la contaminación del aire en las grandes ciudades; en la mitad de ellas constituye la más importante.

 

En México, los trabajos sistemáticos sobre deterioro ambiental datan de 1980, enfocados en grandes ciudades como México D.F y Toluca, Estado de México. En particular, la Ciudad de México incluye una elevada densidad poblacional, vehicular e industrial traducida en un acelerado desarrollo tecnológico; por tanto, no es novedad el padecimiento de problemas ambientales. El deterioro ambiental más notorio en esta megaciudad es la contaminación del aire; situación similar ocurre con la Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara (ZMG). Esta zona al estar ubicada en un valle y rodeada de cadenas montañosas, acentúa una situación caracterizada por dominio de calmas y un sistema de baja dispersión de contaminantes. Asimismo, las frecuentes condiciones de estabilidad atmosférica propician un fenómeno conocido como inversión térmica, el cual obstaculiza la dispersión de contaminantes en el aire, favoreciendo su acumulación y concentración.

 

En el Laboratorio de química se lleva a cabo el proyecto “Estimación cuantitativa de la acidez de las lluvias en la Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara”; el cual fue implementado desde 1994 a la fecha. Se realiza investigación primordialmente sobre la contaminación atmosférica y las lluvias ácidas en esta zona.